Network theory is a structural approach to sociology that is most closely associated with the work of Harrison Whitewho views norms and behaviors as embedded in chains of social relations. Structure and agency Structure and agency, sometimes referred to as determinism versus voluntarism,  form an enduring ontological debate in social theory: While, historically, qualitative methods have attempted to tease out subjective interpretations, quantitative survey methods also attempt to capture individual subjectivities.
Is the sample exclusively urban or rural? Utilitarianismalso known as "rational choice" or "social exchange", although often associated with economicsis an established tradition within sociological theory. Today, deviance and crime has taken a new spin — globalization has widened the rich-poor income gap, stratifying societies into more distinct classes, which may increase the relevance of strain and functionalist, and even conflict theories of deviance and crime.
In essence, phenomenology is the belief that society is a human construction. Much accurate information is available, but so is much inaccurate information. In other words, they own virtually all large-scale means of production. Singapore Department of Statistics. This could complement the functionalist Evaluation of sociological theories essay, suggesting how moral outrage is very much influenced by the powerful — who not only monopolise resources but also craft the rules about deviance and crime in order to best suit their agenda — which is to remain at the top rung of society.
Essay UK - http: However, capitalism turned most other people into industrial workers, whom Marx called proletarians. However, because they have the resources, they are able to buy themselves out of crime, an example of corruption. What are their credentials? In terms of sociology, historical sociology is often better position to analyze social life as diachronic, while survey research takes a snapshot of social life and is thus better equipped to understand social life as synchronic.
While the functionalist theory seeks to explain the functions of deviance and crime in society, the strain theory helps to deepen our understanding by connecting these ideas to the antagonistic relationship between cultural goals and institutionalised means.
Another classic sociologist, Max Weber, agreed with Marx that social classes develop when individuals compete in a market economy for economic resources; however he saw other factors as equally important in understanding class composition and divisions in society.
A recent extension of this idea is that fluctuations in social space — called social time — are the cause of social conflict.
This stigmatization has a direct and often unfair impact on the individuals labeled as deviant. Proletarians are people who, because of the structure of capitalist economy, must sell their labor for wages.
In this way, social class may be determined by occupation and skills, as opposed to the relationship of individuals and groups to the means of production, because economic rewards affect lifestyle and life chances.
HomansPeter Blau and Richard Emerson. Professional journals and periodicals are the most accurate sources of scientific information about sociology.
From the perspective of feminism, functionalist and strain theories fail to enlighten us about crime and deviance with regards to gender inequality.
Is the sample exclusively urban or rural? Feminism, from a social conflict perspective, focuses on gender inequality and links sexuality to the domination of women by men. Thus, the quality of the research published tends to be quite high.
It is therefore a macro level analysis of society that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change. However, with internet, and ease of travel, there is not only new types of crime like cybercrime, but also the changing and dilution of population demographics, and blurring of social classes, making strain functionalist theories harder to apply across societies.
The utilitarian perspective in sociology was, most notably, revitalized in the late 20th century by the work of former ASA president James Coleman.
Much accurate information is available, but so is much inaccurate information. The underclass is comprised of individuals who are unemployed, or have never worked or who have a particularly weak position in the labour market. Mawson, University of Keele, UK, notes. These problems are not altogether empirical problems, rather they are epistemological: Society is nothing more than the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another.
This is one drawback of the strain and functionalist theories — the inability to explain the gender inequality.Evaluating Sociological Research.
Sources of sociological research—sociology journals and books, national magazine surveys, television, and “tabloids”—vary considerably in the quality of information offered.
So properly evaluating research is important when studying sociology. Sociological Theories of Religion Types of Religious. Evaluation of Sociological Theories Deviance can be described as: "Nonconformity with existing/traditional social norms.
This nonconformity is often said to be pathological when it challenges power and privilege; yet it is said to be indicative of innovation or creativity when the gatekeepers of morality approve it. Evaluating Sociological Perspectives on Crime and Deviance Posted on June 3, by Karl Thompson A template I use to get students to evaluate the various perspectives on crime and deviance – it should work well for consensus theories such as Functionalism and Conflict Theories such as Marxism, but might be more difficult to complete for.
Evaluating Sociological Research. Sources of sociological research—sociology journals and books, national magazine surveys, television, and “tabloids”—vary considerably in the quality of information offered.
So properly evaluating research is important when studying sociology. Sociological Theories of Religion Types of Religious. Sociological theories are statements of how and why particular facts about the social world are related.
They range in scope from concise descriptions of a single social process to paradigms for analysis and interpretation. - Outlined within this essay are two sociological theories which have been investigated this will be in conjunction with a contemporary health issue. This then will be related to how the individual’s lifestyle and social class to give the reader a better understanding of this health issue.
- Evaluation of Sociological Theories Deviance.Download